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proceedings  -  Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VIII - 2009

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VIII - 2009

14-19 June 2009, Schladming, Austria


PREFACE

Heat exchangers play a crucial role in most chemical/petrochemical, food processing and power generating processes. However due to the nature of fluids involved in the process, deposits tend to form on the heat transfer surface which greatly reduce the efficiency of the apparatus. The main purpose of this series of conferences on heat exchanger fouling and cleaning has been to facilitate innovative thinking and to explore new theoretical and practical approaches to address the tremendous challenges associated with fouling of heat exchangers, such as:

This series of bi-annual conferences has successfully provided a forum for experts from industry, academia and government research centres from around the world, to present their latest research and technological developments in the areas of fouling mitigation and cleaning technologies. These meetings generally involve overview presentations, technical papers, poster sessions, and panel discussions. Following the meetings organised by Engineering Conferences International in San Luis Obispo, USA (1995), Lucca, Italy (1997), Banff, Canada (1999), Davos, Switzerland (2001), Santa Fé, USA (2003), Kloster Irsee, Germany (2005), Tomar, Portugal (2007), the 8th conference in this series has for the first time been organised under the auspices of EUROTHERM. This conference was held in Schladming, Austria, in June 2009 and provided participants with excellent technical presentations and a very conducive environment for personal discussions. Despite significant financial restrictions world-wide, a record number of 101 participants from 25 countries attended the conference, presenting 81 papers/posters.

The Schladming conference saw many references to the 1983 paper by Prof. Norman Epstein, entitled 'Thinking about heat transfer fouling: A 5 5 matrix', [Heat Transfer Engineering, Vol. 4(1): 43-56]. There, Epstein presented an overview of the state of understanding of the five steps (initiation, transport, attachment, removal and ageing) involved in deposit formation for each of the five principal mechanisms of fouling (particulate, chemical reaction, crystallisation, corrosion and bio-fouling). Given that 25 years had passed since the concept was introduced, the organisers through Dr Ian Wilson, who collated and analysed the data, asked the delegates at the conference - as a representative sample of those active in fouling and cleaning research worldwide - to express their view of the current state of understanding. This was performed by means of a questionnaire, where respondents were asked to indicate their level of experience in their assessment as either (A) expert, (B) experienced, or (C) less confident. The scale of understanding was set as ranging from 1 (little or no understanding) to 5 (understanding well developed).

22 responses were received, some of which were submitted by groups. Respondents were also asked to indicate how long they had been working on fouling and cleaning, this information is provided in Figure 1.


Figure 1 Questionnaire respondents' experience in fouling and cleaning research.

The distribution of expertise in Table 1 indicates a relatively low level of expertise in the areas of biofouling and, to a certain extent, corrosion fouling. This reflected the coverage of these topics in the conference papers. The biofouling area, in particular, was noted as one where a parallel community exists, with dedicated journals and conferences.

Table 1 Respondent's level of expertise in each fouling mechanism (in %). Sample population 22: not all respondents submitted assessments for each mechanism.

Mechanism#ExpertExperiencedLess confident
Biofouling1992763
Particulate19176319
Chemical reaction18205426
Crystallisation18274628
Corrosion18214434



Figure 2 Summary of matrix scores for all levels


The noteworthy points are the presence of several of high scores, particularly in crystallisation fouling, and the paucity of low scores (< 2), with the exception of ageing, indicating that progress has been made. Interestingly, ageing was identified as the topic having received least attention in the 1983 paper. The general lesson appears to be that there is still work to be done, as the award of '5' indicated that the topic was well understood, managed in practice or reliable software available to guide mitigation. One respondent commented on the fact that the matrix only considers each fouling mechanisms in isolation - if fouling caused by combinations of mechanisms is taken into consideration as well, then there is a whole 'Rubik's Cube' waiting to be tackled!

The following papers have been presented at the Schladming conference and have been recommended for publication in the final conference e-proceedings after a careful refereeing and revision process. The e-proceedings cover various aspects of heat exchanger fouling along with updated state-of-art fouling mitigation and cleaning strategies. The present e-proceedings as well as those from the previous conferences since 2003 can be obtained free of charge on the above internet homepage.

The editors wish to thank everybody who contributed to the conference and the conference proceedings, i.e.


Editors

Hans Müller-Steinhagen
German Aerospace Centre and University of Stuttgart (Germany)
M. Reza Malayeri
University of Stuttgart (Germany)

A. Paul Watkinson
University of British Columbia (Canada)


Guest editor for the preface

Ian Wilson
University of Cambridge



ARTICLES

(PDF documents)
  1. Cover
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Preface
  4. FOULING IN CRUDE OIL PREHEAT TRAINS: A SYSTEMATIC SOLUTION TO AN OLD PROBLEM
    S. Macchietto, G.F. Hewitt, F. Coletti, B.D. Crittenden, D.R. Dugwell1, A. Galindo, G. Jackson, R. Kandiyoti, S.G.Kazarian, P.F. Luckham, O.K. Matar, M. Millan-Agorio, E.A. Müller, W. Paterson, S.J. Pugh, S.M. Richardson and D.I. Wilson
  5. RELATE CRUDE OIL FOULING RESEARCH TO FIELD FOULING OBSERVATIONS
    H. M. Joshi, N. B. Shilpi, and A. Agarwal
  6. CHARACTERISATION OF CRUDE OILS AND THEIR FOULING DEPOSITS USING A BATCH STIRRED CELL SYSTEM
    Andrew Young, Silvia Venditti, Cesur Berrueco, Mengyan Yang, Andrew Waters, Haddy Davies, Simon Hill, Marcos Millan and Barry Crittenden
  7. FOULING CHARACTERISTICS OF A HEAVY VACUUM GAS OIL IN THE PRESENCE OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN
    A.P. Watkinson and Y-H. Li
  8. FOULING: IMPLEMENTATION OF A CRUDE PREHEAT TRAIN PERFORMANCE MONITORING APPLICATION AT THE IRVING OIL REFINERY
    A.J. Waters, C.G. Akinradewo, D. Lamb
  9. EXPERIENCE IN THE APPLICATION OF COMPABLOC™ IN REFINERY PRE-HEAT TRAINS AND FIRST ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM AN OPERATIONAL UNIT
    E. Andersson, J. Quah and G.T. Polley
  10. DEVELOPING CHARACTERISATION METHODS FOR FOULANTS DEPOSITED IN REFINERY HEAT EXCHANGERS
    S. Venditti, C. Berrueco, P. Alvarez, T. J. Morgan, M. Millan, A.A. Herod and R. Kandiyoti
  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF SCHEDULING AND DESALTER CONTROL OF PREHEAT TRAINS OF CRUDE DISTILLATION UNITS: A CASE STUDY
    E.M. Ishiyama, D.I. Wilson, W.R. Paterson, A. V. Heins and L. Spinelli
  12. REFINERY PRE-HEAT TRAIN NETWORK SIMULATION UNDERGOING FOULING: ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CARBON EMISSIONS
    F. Coletti and S. Macchietto
  13. MODELLING THE FOULING INDUCTION PERIOD
    Mengyan Yang, Andrew Young, Amir Niyetkaliyev and Barry Crittenden
  14. KINETICS AND STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION DURING AGING OF COKER VAPOUR DEPOSITS
    Z. Fan and A. P. Watkinson
  15. DEPOSITION OF SOLIDS FROM A PETROLEUM HEPTANE-SOLUBLE FRACTION UPON HEATING IN A MICRO-BOMB REACTOR
    S. Venditti, C. Berrueco, P. Alvarez, T.J. Morgan, M. Millan, A.A. Herod and R. Kandiyoti
  16. THE INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULATE CORROSION PRODUCT DEPOSITION ON HEAT TRANSFER SURFACES: A COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTS AND THEORY AND A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE REMOVAL MECHANISM
    K. Khumsa-ang and D. H. Lister
  17. ASSESSMENT OF ASH FOULING AND SLAGGING IN COAL FIRED UTILITY BOILERS
    Jan Taler, Marcin Trojan and Dawid Taler
  18. PREDICTION OF THE SLAGGING STATE ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS BASED ON VAGUE SETS
    Xu Zhi-ming, Wen Xiao-qiang, Zhang Ai-ping, Sun Yuan-yuan, Sun Ling-fang
  19. CALCULATION OF HAMAKER CONSTANTS APPLIED TO THE DEPOSITION OF METALLIC OXIDE PARTICLES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE
    G. Lefèvre and A. Jolivet
  20. FOULING PROBLEMS IN EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION COOLERS IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
    M.S. Abd-Elhady, M.R. Malayeri and H. Müller-Steinhagen
  21. DEPOSIT FORMATION IN EVAPORATION OF A PULP MILL EFFLUENT
    Yonghua Li and A. Paul Watkinson
  22. SCALE FORMATION IN SYNTHETIC BAYER LIQUOR FOLLOWED BY QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE
    F. Brisach, A. Brisach-Wittmeyer, N. Amokrane, N. A. Bouchard, H. Menard, and A. Lasia
  23. ADSORPTION MEASUREMENT OF SCALE INHIBITORS ON STEEL IN BAYER PROCESS
    E. St-Jean, O. Savary, A. Brisach-Wittmeyer, H. Ménard N.A. Bouchard and R. Breault
  24. APPLICATION OF ANTIFOULING SURFACES IN PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER FOR FOOD PRODUCTION
    A. Bani Kananeh, E. Scharnbeck and D. Hartmann
  25. IMPROVING CLEANING OF INDUSTRIAL HEAT INDUCED FOOD AND BEVERAGES DEPOSITS: A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO PRACTICE.
    K. Asteriadou, A.M. Othman, K. Goode and P.J. Fryer
  26. EFFECT OF SEASONAL VARIATION IN MILK COMPOSITION ON DAIRY FOULING
    B. Bansal, B. Habib, H. Rebmann and X. D. Chen
  27. REMOVAL FORCE MEASUREMENT AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SWEETENED CONDENSED MILK DEPOSITS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY
    A.M. Othman, K. Asteriadou and P.J. Fryer
  28. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE FOULING ON HEAT EXCHANGER HEAT TRANSFER AND AIR SIDE PRESSURE DROP FOR A HYBRID DRY COOLER
    I.H. Bell, E.A. Groll and H. König and T. Odrich
  29. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF PARTICULATE FOULING IN A HIGH TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY
    K. K. Sathyanarayanarao Subbarao, C. C. M Rindt and A. A. van Steenhoven
  30. EVALUATION OF OLIGOMER FOULING RESISTANCE IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER FOR HEAT RECOVERY FROM POLYESTER DYEING WASTEWATER
    A. Gavin, G. Rovero and N. Epstein
  31. FOULING IN HIGH SOLID CONTENT SUSPENSION-EFFECT OF NUCLEATING AIR AND BACKGROUND ELECTROLYTE
    M. Riihimäki, U. Ojaniemi, T. J. H. Pättikangas, T. M. Pääkkönen, M. Manninen, E. Puhakka, E. Muurinen, C. J. Simonson, R. L. Keiski
  32. INFLUENCE OF THE APEX ANGLE OF CONE SHAPED TUBES ON PARTICULATE FOULING OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
    M.S. Abd-Elhady, C.C.M. Rindt and A.A. van Steenhoven
  33. CRYSTALLIZATION FOULING OF CaCO3 - EFFECT OF BULK PRECIPITATION ON MASS DEPOSITION ON THE HEAT TRANSFER SURFACE
    T.M. Pääkkönen, M. Riihimäki, E. Puhakka, E. Muurinen, C.J. Simonson and R.L. Keiski
  34. CONSIDERATION OF DYNAMIC UNCERTAINTY IN FOULING EXPERIMENTATION
    A. Al-Janabi, M. Esawy, M.R. Malayeri and H. Müller-Steinhagen
  35. AGEING: LOOKING BACK AND LOOKING FORWARD
    D.I. Wilson, E.M. Ishiyama, W.R. Paterson and A.P. Watkinson
  36. PREDICTION OF FOULING THICKNESS AND BULK MILK OUTLET TEMPERATURE BY ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN) MODELING IN HELICAL TRIPLE TUBE MILK STERILIZERS
    A. Chaturvedi, S. Acharya and A. K. Datta
  37. DEPOSITION MODELING FROM MULTI-PHASE DISPERSED FLOW - A BOUNDARY LAYER WALL FUNCTION APPROACH
    S.G. Johnsen and S.T. Johansen
  38. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF ASPHALTENES DEPOSITION AND REMOVAL IN CRUDE DISTILLATION UNITS
    D. Sileri, K. Sahu, H. Ding and O.K. Matar
  39. DFT STUDIES ON THE FORMATION OF CaCO3 DEPOSITIONS ONTO CRISTOBALITE, DIAMOND AND TITANIUM CARBIDE SURFACES
    E. Puhakka, M. Riihimäki, T.M. Pääkkönen and R.L. Keiski
  40. CONSTRUCTION OF HIGH PREDICTIVE FOULING MODELS USING STATISTICAL METHODS
    Hiromasa Kaneko, Susumu Inasawa, Hirofumi Inokuchi, Kimito Funatsu
  41. EXPERIMENTAL AND CFD STUDIES OF FAT FOULING IN A NOVEL SPINNING DISC SYSTEM
    R.Y. Nigo, Y.M.J. Chew, N.E. Houghton, W.R. Paterson and D.I. Wilson
  42. USE OF CFD TO CORRELATE CRUDE OIL FOULING AGAINST SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND SURFACE SHEAR STRESS IN A STIRRED FOULING APPARATUS
    Mengyan Yang, Andrew Young and Barry Crittenden
  43. ANTIFOULING AND ANTICORROSION PROPERTIES ON SURFACES OF TiO2 NANOMETER FILMS COATED WITH LIQUID PHASE DEPOSITION
    L.L. Wang, M.Y. Liu
  44. MINIMIZATION OF CaSO4 DEPOSITION THROUGH SURFACE MODIFICATION
    A. Al-Janabi, M.R. Malayeri and H. Müller-Steinhagen
  45. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MODIFIED DLC COATINGS TO MINIMIZE PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS ADHESION
    Q. Zhao, X.J. Su, S. Wang, X.L. Zhang, P. Navabpour and D. Teer
  46. ENHANCEMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER IN CRYSTALLIZATION FOULING DUE TO SURFACE ROUGHNESS
    F. Albert, W. Augustin and S. Scholl
  47. CRYSTALLIZATION FOULING OF FINNED TUBES DURING POOL BOILING: EFFECT OF FIN DENSITY
    M. Esawy, M.R. Malayeri and H. Müller-Steinhagen
  48. INFLUENCE OF SURFACE DEFECTS AND AGING OF COATED SURFACES ON FOULING BEHAVIOR
    T. Geddert, W. Augustin and S. Scholl
  49. Biocorrosion induced by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria on Stainless Steel - A Preliminary Study
    H. Men, C.H. Wang, Y. Peng, S.R. Yang and Z.M. Xu
  50. PRECIPITATION FOULING ON VARIOUS AUSTENITIC ALLOYS
    A. Al-Janabi, M.R. Malayeri, H. Müller-Steinhagen and O.O. Badran
  51. RISK-BASED DESIGN MARGIN SELECTION FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS
    R.L. Shilling, M.P. Rudy, and T.M. Rudy
  52. DESIGN OF SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS TO ACHIEVE A SPECIFIED OPERATING PERIOD IN REFINERY PRE-HEAT TRAINS
    G.T. Polley, A. Morales Fuentes & S.J. Pugh
  53. REVAMPING EXISTING SEVERELY FOULING CONVENTIONAL HEAT EXCHANGERS INTO A SELF-CLEANING (FLUIDISED BED) CONFIGURATION: NEW DEVELOPMENTS AND EXAMPLES OF REVAMPS
    D.G. Klaren and E.F. de Boer
  54. PROCEDURE FOR APPLYING FOULING MODELS TO PREDICT OVERALL FOULING RATES IN INDUSTRIAL HEAT EXCHANGERS
    G.T. Polley, G. Gonzales-Garcia
  55. FOULING AND FOULING MITIGATION ON DIFFERENT HEAT EXCHANGING SURFACES
    S. N. Kazi, G. G. Duffy and X. D. Chen
  56. CONTROL OF BIOFOULING OF INDUSTRIAL SURFACES USING MICROPARTICLES CARRYING A BIOCIDE
    Ferreira C., Simões M., Pereira M.C., Bastos M.M.S.M., Nunes O.C., Coelho M. and Melo L.F.
  57. MITIGATION OF CALCIUM CARBONATE FOULING USING RF ELECTRIC FIELDS
    L.D. Tijing, H.Y. Kim, D.H. Lee, C.S. Kim and Y.I. Cho
  58. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A ZERO-FOULING RECIPROCATING SCRAPED SURFACE HEAT EXCHANGER
    J.P. Solano, A. García, P.G. Vicente and A. Viedma
  59. HEAT EXCHANGER PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT THROUGH THE USE OF TUBE INSERTS IN REFINERIES AND CHEMICAL PLANTS - SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS: SPIRELF®, TURBOTAL® AND FIXOTAL® SYSTEMS
    A. Krueger and F. Pouponnot
  60. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF TURBULENCE LEVEL IN ENHANCED EXCHANGERS WITH ACTIVE INSERT DEVICES
    D. Crespí, P.G. Vicente, J.P. Solano, A. García and A. Viedma
  61. Solving Heat Exchanger Tube Problems with Thin Film Thermally Conductive Coating Applications and Novel Tube and Pipe Cleaning as a Precursor to Coating Application and NDT
    E.L. Curran
  62. INVESTIGATING THE REMOVAL OF DISSOLVED INORGANIC ELEMENTS FROM A GAS CONDENSATE STREAM AT SECUNDA SASOL SYNFUELS USING ALUMINA IN CONTINUOUS MODE
    Ratale H. Matjie , Jeeten. Nathoo , N. Mbedzi and Alison E. Lewis
  63. FOULING AND CLEANING MONITORING USING THE MSS - INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVE
    A. Pereira, L.F.Melo, J. Martins and M. Freire
  64. HEAT EXCHANGER CLEANING USING ICE PIGGING
    E.A. Ainslie, G.L. Quarini, D.G. Ash, T.J. Deans, M. Herbert and T.D.L. Rhys
  65. LINEAR PARAMETER-VARYING IDENTIFICATION OF A CROSS FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER FOR FOULING DETECTION: A PRELIMARY STUDY
    G. Mercère, H. Pálsson and T. Poinot
  66. FOULING DETECTION IN A CROSS-FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER BASED ON PHYSICAL MODELING
    O. Gudmundsson, O.P. Palsson, H. Palsson and S. Lalot
  67. MONITORING OF THE LOCAL CLEANING EFFICIENCY OF PULSED FLOW CLEANING PROCEDURES
    Martin Schöler, Tatjana Fuchs, Manuel Helbig, Wolfgang Augustin, Stephan Scholl and Jens-Peter Majschak
  68. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF FOULING UNDER A WELL-DEFINED SHEAR FLOW
    S. Inasawa, M. Mukai, N. Morimoto, M. Nakamura, H. Inokuchi and Y. Yamaguchi
  69. FLUID DYNAMIC GAUGING APPLIED TO ANNULAR TEST APPARATUSES FOR FOULING AND CLEANING
    T. Gu, F. Albert, W. Augustin, Y.M.J. Chew, W.R. Paterson, S. Scholl, I. Sheikh, K. Wang, D.I. Wilson
  70. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCANNING FLUID DYNAMIC GAUGE
    P.W. Gordon, Y.M.J. Chew and D.I. Wilson
  71. DETECTION OF FOULING IN A CROSS-FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER USING WAVELETS
    H. Ingimundardóttir and S. Lalot

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