Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning XIV – 2022

5-10 June 2022, Sporthotel Wagrain, Wagrain, Austria


Energy intensive industries are continuously adapting to the combined effect of tight regulations, growing need for social and environmental responsibility and technology advances. The volatile oil market and the increasing cost of energy and CO2 emissions force engineers to continuously face the challenges of designing highly effective equipment, developing innovative enhancements for heat transfer, and reducing equipment size, mass and cost. In addition numerous studies have shown that heat exchanger fouling may lead to 1 – 2.5% of global CO2 emissions. Furthermore, cost penalties associated with heat exchanger fouling are estimated to be roughly 0.25% of the gross domestic product (GDP) for industrialized countries. The high costs associated with fouling have facilitated the urgency in solving this complex problem.

These challenges are compounded by the need to always pay attention to the fouling propensity of the heat transfer equipment. In order to compensate for the diminished performance of fouled heat exchangers and to reduce down-time for cleaning, the heat transfer area is often overdesigned by up to 200%, which by itself may increase the severity of the fouling problem. Fouling and corrosion, being the major engineering challenge in heat exchanger design and operation, cost the industry billions of dollars each year in lost production, higher energy requirements, additional maintenance cost. Continued research is critical. Whether the work relates to compact heat transfer equipment, surface modifications for reduced deposition, cleaning of equipment or predictive maintenance for optimized operation, it is important that the related R&D community, academic or industrial, is provided a platform to facilitate innovative thinking and to explore new theoretical and practical approaches.

Since 1995, international conferences on heat exchanger fouling and cleaning have been organized by Hans Müller-Steinhagen, Paul Watkinson, and Reza Malayeri in bi-yearly intervals. In 2017, Dr. Hans Zettler has taken the honor to take over the chair of this series and together with a team of colleagues and the Scientific Committee be responsible to organize the 12th, 13th and 14th conference of this series. These meetings provide a unique opportunity for experts from industry, academia and government research centers from around the world to present their latest research findings and technological developments in the areas of fouling mitigation and cleaning technologies. The meetings consist of overview presentations, technical papers, poster sessions, and panel discussions. Following the highly successful meetings in San Luis Obispo, USA (1995), Lucca, Italy (1997), Banff, Canada (1999), Davos, Switzerland (2001), Santa Fé, USA (2003), Kloster Irsee, Germany (2005), Tomar, Portugal (2007), Schladming, Austria (2009), Crete Island, Greece (2011), Budapest, Hungary (2013), Enfield (Dublin), Ireland (2015), Aranjuez, Spain (2017), Józefów, Poland (2019), the 14th conference in this series was held in Wagrain, Austria (2022).

The following papers have been presented and recommended for publication in the conference e-proceedings after a careful revision process. The proceedings cover many aspects of heat exchanger fouling along with innovative state-of-the-art fouling mitigation and cleaning strategies. The editors wish to thank everyone who contributed to the conference and the post-conference e-proceedings, i.e.

  • all the authors and participants who invested substantial efforts to produce high-quality papers and to attend the conference;
  • the session chairpersons, who ensured the presenters were introduced and encouraged productive discussions;
  • the scientific committee and technical reviewers who helped to improve the quality of these papers even more by providing valuable and helpful comments;
  • the team who worked behind the scenes to organize and run the conference and proceedings;
  • the conference sponsors; and
  • the previous team of Conference Chairmen and Co-Chairmen for keeping the conference going for all these years and for entrusting us to continue this successful arrangement into the future.


Hans U. Zettler and Edward Ishiyama
Heat Transfer Research, Inc. (USA)

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(PDF documents)


Table of Contents



  1. Crude heat exchanger fouling – field observations
    H. Josh
  2. Generation of experimental data for model training to optimize fouling prediction
    N. Jarmatz, W. Augustin and S. Scholl


  1. Economic and environmental implications of fouling in crude preheat trains
    E. M. Ishiyama, S. J. Pugh and H. U. Zettler
  2. Impact of fouling on thermo-hydraulics of viscous coolers
    E. M. Ishiyama and D. I. Wilson
  3. Ethylene plant cracked gas compressor fouling mitigation
    B. R. Aluri (Manuscript unavailable to download – peer review process incomplete)
  4. Comparison of heat exchanger fouling test results for once-through and recirculating modes of operation at constant flowrate
    F. Cibotti, E. Rogel, E. Forbes and L. Jackowski
  5. Characterizing fouling tendency of crude oil on a surface using a High Temperature  Variable Shear coupon test rig
    P. Singh, S. Krishnaswamy, K. Ponnani, A. Verma and J. Rawat
  6. Incorporation of fouling deposit measurements in crude oil fouling testing and data analysis
    A. Smith and E. Hitimana
  7. Enhancement of refinery profitability via increasing the life-cycle of welded plate heat exchanger in the sour water stripping Process
    A. B. Kananeh, B. Drazner, A. Hannig, G. Firth and R. Gilsanz
  8. Determining the fouling tendency of different feedstocks in the Fouling Assessment Setup (FAST)
    L. dos S. Vargette, N. Ristic, M. Geerts, G.J. Heynderickx and K.M. Van Geem


  1. Diffusive mass transfer in cleaning of a jellylike whey protein fouling layer
    H. Wiese, H. Geißler, W. Augustin and S. Scholl
  2. Ultrasonic coda wave interferometry (CWI) for detecting a change at interface of a solid surface – Applications for monitoring fouling, biofilm growth, cleaning and corrosion
    G. Delaplace, P. Campistron, M. Abdallah, A. Boutignon, T. Danel, S. Khelissa, T.  Six1, L. Wauquier, T. Dubois1, N-E. Chihib, P. Debreyne, C. Nicard, I. Proriol Serre, D. Balloy, B. Chen, M. Farin, O. Brehault, D. Callens, L. Chehami, F. Benmeddour and E. Moulin
  3. Influence of the rheological properties and pull-off forces of native and modified starches on cleaning in plane channel flow
    S. Kricke, C. Berger, S. Zahn, H. Köhler, H. Rohm and J.-P. Majschak
  4. Role of casein micelle on the whey protein fouling in a bench-scale fouling device
    W. Liu,  X. D. Chen, R. Jeantet, C. André, and G. Delaplace
  5. System for automated monitoring of local soil removal during cleaning in closed food processing lines with a quartz crystal sensor
    S. Gottschall , R. Murcek , S. Städtler and M. Mauermann


  1. Flowing Foam: An eco-efficient strategy for cleaning of contaminated industrial equipment
    H. Dallagi, C. Faille, L. Bouvier, L. Wauquier, C. Gruescu, F.  Aloui and T. Bénézech


  1. Software-guided clamp-on power ultrasound solution for fouling mitigation in tubular heat exchangers
    P. Moilanen, T. Rauhala, S. Ahmadzai
  2. Interaction of heat transfer enhancement and fouling in operating heat exchangers
    E. M. Ishiyama, S. J. Pugh and A. P. Watkinson
  3. Using continuous helical flow electric heat exchangers to reduce fouling
    D. P. Long, J. Wilson


  1. CFD-based Modelling of a Cohesively Separating Soil Layer in consideration of local soil distribution
    C. Golla, H. Köhler and F. Rüdiger
  2. Optimization of macro-structured pipe surfaces to improve the cleaning performance
    T. Hanisch, M. Joppa, V. Eisenrauch, S. Jacob and M. Mauermann
  3. Numerical investigation of tubeside maldistribution in shell-and-tube heat exchangers
    R. Schab, A. Kutschabsky, S. Unz and M. Beckmann
  4. CFD modelling of an initial powdery layer on cooled tubular surfaces
    J. Strouhal, T. Juřena, Z. Jegla


  1. The potential of thermally conductive polymer composites regarding crystallization fouling mitigation
    H. Kiepfer, H.-J. Bart, P. Stannek, M. Kuypers, M. Grundler
  2. Crystallisation fouling from aqueous solutions of clathrate hydrates
    A. Karela, S.M. Clarke, G. Kawaley, A.F. Routh and D.I. Wilson
  3. Investigations of crystallization fouling in columns
    K. Inderwies, H. Klein and S. Rehfeldt
  4. Impact of a Surfactant on Film Flow and Crystallization Fouling in Falling Film Evaporators
    M. Waack, S. Nied and H. Glade
  5. Role of Zinc in Bulk Precipitation from Steaming Process of Potable Water
    A. Al-Gailani and R. Barker


  1. HEATTRAX: A new approach to exchanger fouling management
    K. Vann, T. Matthews, N. Wang, B. Busker, M. Bagajewicz, D. Oliva and R. Vargas
  2. Fouling thickness modeling for refinery cleaning schedule optimization
    M. J. Bagajewicz, A. L. M. Nahes and A. L. H. Costa
  3. Fouling management through digital transformation
    E. M. Ishiyama, J. Kennedy, H. U. Zettler and S. J. Pugh
  4. TotalEnergies Fouling Management Program
    E. Gomez, L. France, E. M. Ishiyama, J. Kennedy and S. J. Pugh


  1. Thermal heat exchanger cleaning
    R. Mol
  2. Developments personal safety for Industrial Cleaning
    H. Borgt
  3. Simultaneous Effective Removal of Iron Polysulfide and Polyolefin Fouling from Twisted Tube Heat Exchangers in Hydrocracker Process using Ultrasonic Chemical Cleaning
    R. A. Shank and T. R. McCartney
  4. The economic impact of better heat exchanger cleaning on an oil refinery – theoretical, expected and actual results
    B.N. Kieser, R. Tomotaki, J. Loyola-Fuentes, E. Diaz-Bejarano and F. Coletti (Manuscript unavailable to download – peer review process incomplete)
  5. Chemical Cleaning of Crude Oil Fouling Deposits; Applying the Coke Spectrum
    R. A. Shank and T. R. McCartney
  6. Multistage fouling fracturing method
    E. Cherednik and A. Belomestnykh (Manuscript unavailable to download – peer review process incomplete)


  1. Accelerated Decarbonization Through In-Place Surface Treatment Technologies
    V. Veedu, M. Nakatsuka and S. Thapa (Manuscript unavailable to download – peer review process incomplete)
  2. Reduce OPEX and CAPEX in refining process unit fired heaters and heat exchangers using tubacoat technology
    S. Lodha (Manuscript unavailable to download – peer review process incomplete)
  3. Anti-fouling coatings: A critical review and development roadmap
    Simone Mancin and Francesco Coletti (Manuscript unavailable to download – peer review process incomplete)
  4. Investigation of icephobic coatings for supercooling heat exchangers under submerged conditions using ice detection equipment
    J. R. Frandsen, R. Losada, D. Carbonell
  5. An Overview of butadiene chemical reaction fouling in Steam Cracker and its control by surface modification
    J.-P. Thoret-Bauchet, L. Renaud and L. Galliot
  6. Novel surface treatment to mitigate fouling in heat exchangers and process equipment
    J. Ayutsede, S. Kerber, E. Curran, B. Dooley, I. Luna and  L. Jackowski
  7. Coatings to reduce fouling in plate heat exchangers: Two case studies
    O. Santos, Y. Adriaenssens, C. Wictor and M. Nilsson
  8. Pigmented antifouling coatings for improved on-site inspection
    C. Bischoff, J. R. Frandsen, I. Luna and L. Jackowski