Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning IX – 2011

05-10 June 2011, Crete Island, Greece


Heat exchangers play a crucial role in most chemical, food processing and power generating processes. However due to the nature of fluids involved in the process, deposits tend to form on the heat transfer surfaces which may profoundly reduce the efficiency of the apparatus. The penalty for fouling includes oversized plant, reduced thermal efficiency, increased pressure drop, additional maintenance and loss of production. For example, energy losses due to fouling of heat exchangers account for at least 2% of the total yearly world energy production. The overwhelming proportion of these losses is substituted by additional consumption of fossil energy carriers. Not surprisingly, this comes with an enormous energy price-tag as well as considerable green-house gas emissions, acidification of water resources and release of chemical fouling inhibitors or cleaning agents.

Bi-yearly conferences on heat exchanger fouling and cleaning were held since 1995. These meetings provide an opportunity for experts from industry, academia and government research centres from around the world to present their latest research and technological developments in the areas of fouling mitigation and cleaning technologies. They involve overview presentations, technical papers, poster sessions, and panel discussions. Following the highly successful meetings in San Luis Obispo, USA (1995), Lucca, Italy (1997), Banff, Canada (1999), Davos, Switzerland (2001), Santa Fé, USA (2003), Kloster Irsee, Germany (2005), Tomar, Portugal (2007), Schladming, Austria (2009), the 9th conference in this series was held in the Crete Island of Greece, in June 2011.

The following papers have been presented and recommended for publication in the post conference e-proceedings, after a careful refereeing and revising process. The proceedings cover many aspects of heat exchanger fouling along with innovative state-of-the-art fouling mitigation and cleaning strategies.

Finally, the editors wish to thank everybody who contributed towards the conference and the post conference e-conference proceedings, i.e.

  • all the authors and participants who invested substantial efforts to produce high-quality papers and to attend the conference
  • the technical referees who helped to improve the quality of these papers even more, by providing valuable and helpful comments
  • the Conference Advisory Committee and the Session Chairpersons


M. Reza Malayeri
University of Stuttgart (Germany)

Hans Müller-Steinhagen
Technische Universität Dresden (Germany)

A. Paul Watkinson
University of British Columbia (Canada)

Our sponsors:


(PDF documents)


Table of Contents



  1. Determination of Crude Oil Fouling Thresholds
    M. Yang, A. O’Meara and B.D. Crittenden
  2. Design and Operating Aspects Influencing Fouling inside Radiant Coils of Fired Heaters Operated in Crude Oil Distillation Plants
    Z. Jegla, J. Kohoutek and P. Stehlik
  3. Extending Fouling Concepts from Heat Exchangers to Process Equipment
    A.P. Watkinson, Z. Fan and B. Petkovic
  4. Iron Sulphide and Coke Fouling from Sour Oils: Review and Initial Experiments
    W. Wang and A.P. Watkinson
  5. Management of Crude Oil Preheat Trains Subject to Fouling
    E.M. Ishiyama, S.J. Pugh, W.R. Paterson, G.T. Polley and D.I. Wilson
  6. Parameter Estimation of Fouling Models in Crude Preheat Trains
    A.L.H. Costa, V.B.G. Tavares, J.L. Borges, E.M. Queiroz, F.L.P. Pessoa, F.S. Liporace and S.G. Oliveira
  7. Analysis of the Environmental and Economic Impact of Fouling in Crude Preheat Trains for Petroleum Distillation
    A.L.H. Costa, V.B.G. Tavares, E.M. Queiroz, F.L.P. Pessoa, F.S. Liporace, S.G. Oliveira and J.L. Borges
  8. Simplified Analysis of Influence of Pre-Heat Train Performance and Fired Heater Design on Fuel Efficiency of Fired Heaters
    A. Morales Fuentes, G. Martinez Rodriguez, G.T. Polley, M. Picon Nunez and E. Ishiyama
  9. Fouling Monitoring in Diesel Unit Preheat Exchangers
    G. Sahin, S. Orman, M. Becer, U.B. Ayhan, Y. Özçelik, and F. Balkan
  10. Comments on “Relate Crude Oil Fouling Research to Field Fouling Observations by Joshi et al. presented at the Schladming heat exchanger fouling and cleaning conf., 2009”
    N. Epstein


  1. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies, Deposit properties and Microstructure
    J.M.E. Storey, C.S. Sluder, M.J. Lance, D. Styles, and S. Simko
  2. Deposition of Nano-sized Soot Particles in Various EGR Coolers under Thermophoretic and Isothermal Conditions
    M.R. Malayeri, T. Zornek, S. Balestrino, A. Warey and P.G. Szymkowicz
  3. Fouling of EGR Heat Exchangers – Investigation of Mechanisms Involved in Soot Particle Deposition
    G. Hörnig, P. Völk, G. Wachtmeister and R. Niessner
  4. Development of a Predictive CFD Fouling Model for Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Systems
    M.C. Paz, E. Suárez, A. Eirís and J. Porteiro


  1. Freezing Fouling Caused by Fat Crystallisation on Cooled Surfaces
    J-Y. Huang, Y.M.J. Chew and D.I. Wilson
  2. Mitigation of Sodium Fluoride Scale in an Evaporator-Crystallizer
    R. Breault, G. Hamel and N-A. Bouchard
  3. The Effects of Flow Velocity on Crystallization Fouling in Falling Film Black Liquor Evaporators
    M. Gourdon
  4. Effect of Deposit Formation on the Performance of Annular Finned Tubes during Nucleate Pool Boiling
    M. Esawy, M.R. Malayeri and H. Müller-Steinhagen
  5. Formation of Gibbsite Scale in the Bayer Process on Metal Surfaces
    E. St-Jean, M. Clément, O. Savary, C. Pagé-Labelle, N.-A. Bouchard and H. Ménard
  6. Evolution of Biofouling on Heat Transfer Surface Caused by Simulated Treated Sewage: Influence of Calcium Ions
    L. Tian, Q.P. Yang, L. Shi and J.C. Chen


  1. Initial Oxide Particle Deposition under Low-Temperature Cooling Water Conditions: Experiments under Subcooled Boiling at High pH
    K. Khumsa-Ang and D.H. Lister
  2. Thermophysical Properties of Ash Deposit on Boiler Heat Exchange Surfaces
    A. Ots
  3. Deposition Behavior of a Bituminous Coal in a Large Pulverized Fuel Power Plant
    S. Babat, J. Maier, G. Scheffknecht, G. Stein-Brzozowka and E. Miller


  1. Extension of Fertilizer Plants Availability via Increasing the Lifespan of Plate Heat Exchangers
    A. Bani Kananeh, C. Reuter and J. Peschel
  2. Optical and Thermal Investigations of Crystallization Fouling in a Micro Heat Exchanger
    M. Mayer, J. Bucko, W. Benzinger, R. Dittmeyer, W. Augustin and S. Scholl


  1. Biofilm Control with New Microparticles with Immobilized Biocide
    C. Ferreira, A.M. Pereira, M.C. Pereira, M. Simões and L.F. Melo
  2. Setup and Validation of Flow Cell Systems for Biofouling Simulation in Industrial Settings
    J.S. Teodósio, M. Simões, M.A. Alves, L.F. Melo and F.J.M. Mergulhão


  1. A Critical Review of Basic Crystallography to Salt Crystallization Fouling in Heat Exchangers
    X. Zhao and X.D. Chen
  2. Effect of Condensable Species on Particulate Fouling
    K.K. Sathyanarayanarao Subbarao, C.C.M. Rindt and A.A. van Steenhoven
  3. Growth Rates of Dry Particulate Fouling under Variable Process Conditions
    K.K. Sathyanarayanarao Subbarao, C.C.M. Rindt and A.A. van Steenhoven
  4. Influence of Soluble Polysaccharide on the Adherence of Particulate Soils
    Y. Touré, P.G. Rouxhet, C.C. Dupont-Gillain and M. Sindic


  1. Modifications in Hygienic Properties of Stainless Steel Surfaces due to Repeated Soiling and Cleaning
    M. Mauermann, A. Calvimontes, C. Bellmann, F. Simon, M. Schöler and J.P. Majschak


  1. Experimental Study on the Adhesion of Single Crystals on Modified Surfaces in Crystallization Fouling
    M. Mayer, W. Augustin and S. Scholl
  2. The effect of Magnesium on the Formation of CaCO3 Depositions
    E. Puhakka, M. Riihimäki and R.L. Keiski
  3. Studies of Paraffin Wax Deposition on Coated and non-Coated Steel Surfaces
    S.G. Johnsen, S.M. Hanetho, P. Tetlie, S.T. Johansen, M.A. Einarsrud, I. Kaus and C.R. Simon
  4. Antimicrobial Efficiency of Metal-Polymer Nanocomposite Coatings
    X.J. Su, Q. Zhao, S. Wang, S. Zhang N. Noormofidi, E. Kreutzwiesner and C. Slugovc
  5. Crystallization Fouling on Coatings of Titania and Titania-Fluoroalkylsilane during Nucleate Boiling
    Y.W. Cai and M.Y. Liu


  1. Modelling Fouling of Rough Surfaces by Colloidal Particles in Turbulent Flows
    C. Henry, J.-P. Minier, G. Lefèvre and O. Hurisse
  2. Fouling of Heat Exchangers in the Convection Section of a Thermal Cracker
    G.J. Heynderickx, S.C.K. De Schepper, G.B. Marin
  3. Development of a Conceptual Model of Crystallization in a Heat Exchanger
    N. Morimoto, M. Nakamura, Y. Yamane and H. Inokuchi


  1. A Critical Analysis of the Compensation Effect and its Application to Heat Exchanger Fouling Studies
    P.J. Barrie, C.A. Pittas, M.J. Mitchell and D.I. Wilson


  1. Using of Fluent Code to Predict Deposition during Combustion of Solid Fuels
    K. Waclawiak and S. Kalisz
  2. CFD Modelling of Ash Deposits in Coal-Fired Power Plants
    A. Magda, S.I. Magda, M. Strelow , H. Müller and R. Leithner
  3. Use of CFD to Determine Effect of Wire Matrix Inserts on Crude Oil Fouling Conditions
    M. Yang and B.D. Crittenden


  1. Modelling and Validation of the Mechanism of Pulsed Flow Cleaning
    H. Föste, M. Schöler, W. Augustin, J.-P. Majschak, S. Scholl
  2. Increased Shear Stress in Annular Swirling Flow for Reduced Fouling Rate
    H. Pálsson, F. Beaubert and S. Lalot


  1. A Novel Quantitative Evaluation Method for Cleaning Processes on Open Surfaces Independent of Soil Layer Thickness
    H. Köhler, M. Mauermann, M. Schöler, A. Boye, A. Calvimontes and J.P. Majschak
  2. The Application of Industrial Scale Ultrasonic Cleaning to Heat Exchangers
    B. Kieser, R. Phillion, S. Smith and T. McCartney
  3. Ultrasonic Cleaning of Badly Fouled COMPABLOC Exchangers
    R. Phillion, S. Smith, B. Kieser and T. McCartney
  4. Removal of Dust Particles from the Surface of Solar Cells and Solar Collectors Using Surfactants
    M.S. Abd-Elhady, S.I.M. Zayed and C.C.M. Rindt
  5. An MINLP Formulation for Scheduling the Cleaning of Heat Exchanger Networks Subject to Fouling and Ageing
    T. Pogiatzis, V.S. Vassiliadis, D.I. Wilson
  6. The Impact of Ageing on Fouling and Cleaning: Closing the Fouling-Cleaning Loop
    E.M. Ishiyama, W.R. Paterson and D.I. Wilson
  7. Impact of Thermal shock on Fouling of Various Structured Tubes during Pool Boiling of CaSO4 solutions
    M. Evangelidou, M. Esawy and M.R. Malayeri


  1. Detection of Fouling in a Heat Exchanger by Application of a Lock-in Technique
    Ó. Andrjesdóttir, H. Pálsson, S. Lalot, B. Desmet
  2. Using Acoustic Pulse Reflectometry for Quality Control of Heat Exchanger Cleaning
    N. Amir and D. Bobrow
  3. Experiences of on-line monitoring of microbial corrosion and antifouling on copper alloys condenser tubes
    M.L. Carvalho and P. Cristiani
  4. Comparison of Fouling Detection between a Physical Model and a Black Box Model
    O. Gudmundsson, O.P. Palsson, H. Palsson and G.R. Jonsson
  5. Dynamic Gauging of Fouling Layers on Solid and Porous Surfaces
    V.Y. Lister, W. Augustin, Y.M.J Chew, P.W. Gordon, A.E. Kvarngren, M. Mayer, W.R. Paterson, J.M. Peralta, S. Scholl, P.P. van Uytvanck and D.I. Wilson
  6. Study on SRB induced corrosion based on Electrochemical Noise Analysis and Signal Processing
    H. Men, J. Zhang, L. Zhang, S. Yang and Z. Xu
  7. On-line Monitoring of Deposition and Removal of Milk Salts on Coated Surfaces
    C. Boxler, F. Kaup, R. Teixeira, A. Pereira, J. Mendes, L.F. Melo, W. Augustin and S. Scholl