Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning XIII – 2019

2-7 June 2019, Józefów (Warsaw), Poland


The decreasing price of oil and the increasing cost of energy and CO2 emissions force engineers to continuously face the challenges of designing highly effective equipment, developing innovative enhancements for heat transfer, and reducing equipment size, mass and cost. In addition numerous studies have shown that heat exchanger fouling may lead to 1 – 2.5% of global CO2 emissions. Furthermore, cost penalties associated with heat exchanger fouling are estimated to be roughly 0.25% of the gross domestic product (GDP) for industrialized countries. The high costs associated with fouling have facilitated the urgency in solving this complex problem.

These challenges are compounded by the need to always pay attention to the fouling propensity of the heat transfer equipment. In order to compensate for the diminished performance of fouled heat exchangers and to reduce down-time for cleaning, the heat transfer area is often overdesigned by up to 200%, which by itself may increase the severity of the fouling problem. Fouling and corrosion, being the major engineering challenge in heat exchanger design and operation, cost the industry billions of dollars each year in lost production, higher energy requirements, additional maintenance cost. Continued research is critical. Whether the work relates to compact heat transfer equipment, surface modifications for reduced deposition, cleaning of equipment or predictive maintenance for optimized operation, it is important that the related R&D community, academic or industrial, is provided a platform to facilitate innovative thinking and to explore new theoretical and practical approaches.

Since 1995, international conferences on heat exchanger fouling and cleaning have been organized by Hans Müller-Steinhagen, Paul Watkinson, and Reza Malayeri in bi-yearly intervals. In 2017, it was my honor to take over the chair of this series and together with a team of colleagues and the Scientific Committee be responsible to organize the 12th and 13th conference of this series. These meetings provide a unique opportunity for experts from industry, academia and government research centers from around the world to present their latest research findings and technological developments in the areas of fouling mitigation and cleaning technologies. The meetings consist of overview presentations, technical papers, poster sessions, and panel discussions. Following the highly successful meetings in San Luis Obispo, USA (1995), Lucca, Italy (1997), Banff, Canada (1999), Davos, Switzerland (2001), Santa Fé, USA (2003), Kloster Irsee, Germany (2005), Tomar, Portugal (2007), Schladming, Austria (2009), Crete Island, Greece (2011), Budapest, Hungary (2013), Enfield (Dublin), Ireland (2015), Aranjuez, Spain (2017), the 13th conference in this series was held in Józefów, Poland (2019).

The following papers have been presented and recommended for publication in the conference e-proceedings after a careful revision process. The proceedings cover many aspects of heat exchanger fouling along with innovative state-of-the-art fouling mitigation and cleaning strategies. The editors wish to thank everyone who contributed to the conference and the post-conference e-proceedings, i.e.

  • all the authors and participants who invested substantial efforts to produce high-quality papers and to attend the conference;
  • the session chairpersons, who ensured the presenters were introduced and encouraged productive discussions;
  • the scientific committee and technical reviewers who helped to improve the quality of these papers even more by providing valuable and helpful comments;
  • the team who worked behind the scenes to organize and run the conference and proceedings;
  • the conference sponsors; and
  • the previous team of Conference Chairmen and Co-Chairmen for keeping the conference going for all these years and for entrusting us to continue this successful arrangement into the future.


Hans U. Zettler
Heat Transfer Research, Inc. (USA)

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(PDF documents)


Table of Contents



  1. HELIXCHANGER® Heat Exchanger – Field Experience and Ongoing Development
    R.J. Jibb, M. Brignone, S. Taha, G. Podrebarac, J. Larance, P. Junge
  2. Fluid Dynamic Gauging for Studying Early Stages of Swelling of Fouling Deposits
    J.-H. Tsai, G.L. Cuckston, L. Schnöing, W. Augustin, S. Scholl, B. Hallmark and D.I. Wilson
  3. Modelling Local Fouling Resistances
    F. Schlüter, W. Augustin and S. Scholl


  1. Characterization of Crude Oil Fouling: Defining the Coke Spectrum
    R.A. Shank and T.R. McCartney
  2. Comparison of Heat Exchanger Fouling Test Results for Once-Through and Recirculating Modes of Operation
    F. Cibotti, E. Rogel, K. Hench, L. Jackowski


  1. Experimental Study of the Effect of Hydrocarbon Condensation on the Fouling Deposits of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers
    Paz C., Concheiro M., Vence J. and Cabarcos A.
  2. CFD Simulation of Fouling of Plate Heat Exchanger with SMUF
    U.Ojaniemi, T.P. Pättikangas, A. Jäsberg, E. Puhakka and A. Koponen


  1. On-line Fouling Mitigation for Preheat Trains Using Ultrasonic Scale Prevention
    R. G. Philion
  2. Practical Experiences with Fluidized Bed Heat Exchanger for Evaporation of Waste Water
    M. C. van Beek, A. S. Awalgaonkar


  1. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Hydrogenerator Heat Exchangers through the Control of Measurement Uncertainties
    M.N. Frota, J.D. Hernández-Vásquez, E.R. Castro-Pacheco and S.B. Germano
  2. Modeling and CFD Simulation of the Displacement of the Solid/Liquid Interface during Crystallization Fouling in a Geothermal Heat Exchanger
    F. Cazenave, J.P. Serin, P. Bernada and F. Couture
  3. The Dynamic Behaviour of Once-Through Cooling Water Systems under Fouling Phenomena
    J.N.M. Souza, A.R.C. Souza, A.L.H. Costa and L. Melo


  1. Interfacial Surface Energies ‒ Stainless Steel and Titanium Nitride Substrates and CaCO3 and CaHPO4 Depositions
    E. Puhakka, U. Ojaniemi and T. Pättikangas
  2. Discussion of Using Fouling Rig Analysis to Model Industrial Fouling Data
    E.M. Ishiyama, S.J. Pugh and H.M. Joshi


  1. Development of TiO2-PTFE Nanocomposite Coatings with Antibacterial and Anti-Corrosion Properties on Stainless Steel Surface
    S. Zhang, R. Keatch and Q. Zhao
  2. High Performance Coatings for Protecting Carbon Steel and Low Alloying Stainless Steel in Low Enthalpy Geothermal Fluids
    R. Losada, S. Holberg, L. Freire and J. Van Bael
  3. Qualifying a Fouling Repellent Thin Sol-Gel Coating for Carbon Steel Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers
    T. Poulsen, R. Losada, C. Bischoff, E. Curran, L. Jackowski, S. Taylor and B. Chaloner-Gill
  4. Effective Corrosion Protection and Scaling Prevention of Complex Geometries
    Florian Steinmann, Till Merkel
  5. Analysis of Crystallization Fouling Durability of Novel Heating Elements for Electric Water Heating
    A. Janzen and E. Y. Kenig
  6. Prevention of Carbon Deposition on the Surface of Stainless Steel Tubes through Ceramic Coating
    T. Cordero-Lanzac, A. Arandia, A.G. Gayubo, A.T. Aguayo, M. Presa and S. Lodha
  7. Alfa Laval Experience with Coatings to Reduce Fouling in Plate Heat Exchangers
    O. Santos, C. Wictor and M. Nilsson
  8. Development of a Quantification Method for Fouling Deposits Using Phosphorescence
    H. Deponte, W. Augustin and S. Scholl


  1. Understanding and Analysis of Fouling Behavior of Bare-Wire Heating Elements in Electric Water Heating
    A. Janzen and E.Y. Kenig
  2. Crystallization Fouling in Domestic Appliances and Systems
    Amthal Al-Gailani, Thibaut Charpentier, Olujide Sanni and Anne Neville
  3. Effects of Film Flow on Scale Formation in Horizontal Tube Falling Film Evaporators for Seawater Desalination
    M. Waack, H. Glade and S. Nied
  4. Effect of Different Operating Conditions on the Sensitivity of Noninvasive Methods to Detect Crystallization Fouling in Liquid-to-Air Membrane Energy Exchangers
    B. Xing, A.O. Olufade and C.J. Simonson
  5. Experimental Characterization of Fouling in Context of Heat Exchanger Development
    A. Warlo, B. Nienborg, H. Fugmann, M. Altenberend, L. Schnabel, K. Conzelmann, M. Mathieu and A. Schwärzler
  6. Investigation of Crystallization Fouling on Novel Polymer Composite Heat Exchanger Tubes
    H. Glade, S. Schilling and T. Orth
  7. Investigation of the Fouling Behaviour of a Polymer During Synthesis
    A. Hohlen, W. Augustin and S. Scholl


  1. Integration of Optimal Cleaning Scheduling and Control for Fouling Mitigation in Heat Exchanger Networks: A Receding Horizon Approach
    F. Lozano-Santamaria and S. Macchietto
  2. Developments in Optimal Scheduling of Cleaning Actions for Heat Exchanger Networks Subject to Fouling
    R. Al Ismaili, M.W. Lee, V.S. Vassiliadis and D.I. Wilson
  3. Advanced Fouling Management through Use of HTRI SmartPM: Case Studies from TOTAL Refinery CDU Preheat Trains
    E.M. Ishiyama, C. Juhel, B. Aquino, H. Hagi, S.J. Pugh and H.U. Zettler
  4. Model Validation for the Optimization of Refinery Preheat Trains under Fouling
    F. Lozano-Santamaria and S. Macchietto
  5. Heat Exchanger Monitoring to Improve Integrity, Reliability, and Operations in the Oil and Gas Industry
    Ian Luna, Christopher A. Bennett, Lanre Badmus, Seth Taylor, Doug Swenson and Les Jackowski


  1. CFD Study of the Fouling Layer Evolution Due to Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation inside an Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler
    Paz C., Suárez E., Vence J. and Gil C.
  2. Numerical Investigation of Various Geometries of Steam Cracking Furnace Tubes for Reduced Fouling Rate
    B. Indurain, F. Beaubert, D. Uystepruyst, S. Lalot and M. Couvrat
  3. Validation of a Temperature Dependent 3D Numerical Droplet Impingement Simulation Procedure to Predict Splash/Non-Splash Behavior
    S. Vangaever, P. Verhees, A.R. Akhras, K. M. Van Geem and G. J. Heynderickx


  1. A Combined Experimental-Modelling Approach to Optimise Chemical Cleaning of Heat Exchangers
    E. Diaz-Bejarano, H. Borgt and F. Coletti
  2. On the Concept of CFD-Based Prediction of Cleaning for Film-Like Soils
    H. Köhler, V. Liebmann, M. Joppa, J. Fröhlich, J.-P. Majschak and F. Rüdiger
  3. Taking Safety to the Max: Eliminating Hydroblasting Risk through Innovative Design, Automation and Process
    B. Kieser and D. Stang
  4. Thermal Cleaning of Heat Exchangers, No Alternative but a Better Way to Clean
    R.A. Mol
  5. Gains from the Use of Ultrasonic Cleaning of Large Industrial Equipment
    C. Henrique Schulz and B. Kieser
  6. New Peroxide-Based Technology of Heat Exchangers Cleaning
    I. F. Gazizullin, D. R. Bazanov, V. I. Semenikhin and I. Y. Rodin
  7. Shell Jet™ – Cleaning the Inaccessible and Uncleanable
    Mike Watson
  8. Online Cleaning: A Tool for Improving Operational Excellence
    Dr. M. Ferrara
  9. Modelling Fouling in Hydrodesulfurization Unit Heat Exchangers
    E.M. Ishiyama, J. Kennedy and S.J. Pugh


  1. Effect of Physicochemical Properties of Native Starches on Cleaning in Falling Film and Plane Channel Flow Experiments
    S. Kricke, K. Böttcher, S. Zahn, J.-P. Majschak and H. Rohm
  2. Fouling and Cleaning of Plate Heat Exchangers: Dairy Application
    A. Sharma and S. Macchietto
  3. Fouling Dynamics of SMUF on a Plate Heat Exchanger
    A. Jäsberg, T. Turpeinen, A. Tanaka, A. Ketola, M. Järvinen, U. Ojaniemi, T. Pättikangas and A. Koponen
  4. Thermal Ageing of Mineral and Proteinaceaous Fouling Layers during the Growth Phase
    L. Schnöing, W. Augustin and S. Scholl


  1. Discussion of criteria-based method for analysis of initial fouling rate
    A. Smith
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