Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning XI – 2015

07-12 June 2015, Enfield (Dublin), Ireland


The heat exchanger fouling and cleaning community is confronted with new challenges that have not been foreseen in the past and with old problems that are increasingly getting worse. For example, the automotive industry utilizes more heat exchangers to meet efficiency and emission standards by reducing NOx through exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers. While theoretically being very effective, this technique has been severely hindered by rapid formation of various types of deposit on the cooler surfaces. Along the same lines, oil refineries nowadays have to cope with heavier crude oils or densified residuals with higher risk of fouling from sources which until recently have not been economical to process. World population growth, particularly in coastal arid areas, demands more potable water from seawater desalination which is prone to formation of deposits. Numerous studies have shown that heat exchanger fouling may be responsible for 1-2.5% of global CO2 emissions. Cost penalties due to fouling, e.g. for additional fuel, down-time, over-design, cleaning chemicals, etc., have been estimated as about 0.25% of the GDP of industrialized nations.

A bi-yearly series of conferences on heat exchanger fouling and cleaning has been organized since 1995, mostly by the editors of the present e-proceedings. These meetings provide a unique opportunity for experts from industry, academia and government research centres from around the world to present their latest research findings and technological developments in the areas of fouling mitigation and cleaning technologies. The meetings consist of overview presentations, technical papers, poster sessions, and panel discussions. Following the highly successful meetings in San Luis Obispo, USA (1995), Lucca, Italy (1997), Banff, Canada (1999), Davos, Switzerland (2001), Santa Fé, USA (2003), Kloster Irsee, Germany (2005), Tomar, Portugal (2007), Schladming, Austria (2009), Crete Island, Greece (2011), Budapest, Hungary (2013), the 11th conference in this series was held in Enfield (Dublin), Ireland (2015).

The following papers have been presented and recommended for publication in the conference e-proceedings after a careful refereeing and revision process. The proceedings cover many aspects of heat exchanger fouling along with innovative state-of-the-art fouling mitigation and cleaning strategies. The editors wish to thank everybody who contributed towards the conference and the post conference e-proceedings, i.e.

  • all the authors and participants who invested substantial efforts to produce high-quality papers and to attend the conference;
  • the technical referees who helped to improve the quality of these papers even more, by providing valuable and helpful comments;
  • the conference sponsors; and
  • the Conference Advisory Committee and the Session Chairpersons.


M. Reza Malayeri
Technische Universität Dresden (Germany)
Shiraz University (Iran)

Hans Müller-Steinhagen
Technische Universität Dresden (Germany)

A. Paul Watkinson
University of British Columbia (Canada)

Our sponsors:


(PDF documents)


Table of Contents



  1. Twenty Years of Ebert and Panchal – What Next?
    D.I. Wilson, E.M. Ishiyama and G.T. Polley
  2. A Critical Look at the Use of Activation Energy in Crude Oil Fouling Models
    A.D. Smith and H.M. Joshi
  3. Impact of Mixing on Crude Oil Fouling Tests
    M.R. Lane and J.S. Harris
  4. Heat Exchanger Design with High Shear Stress: Reducing Fouling or Throughput?
    F. Coletti, E. Diaz-Bejarano, J. Martinez and S. Macchietto
  5. Crude Oil Fouling Deposition, Suppression, Removal – and how to Tell the Difference
    E. Diaz-Bejarano, F. Coletti and S. Macchietto
  6. Fouling Management of Thermal Cracking Units
    E.M. Ishiyama, J. Kennedy and S.J. Pugh
  7. Investigating the Impact of Boiling Conditions on the Fouling of a Crude oil
    J.S. Harris, M.R. Lane and A.D. Smith
  8. Thermal Fouling of Heat Exchanger Tubes due to Heavy Hydrocarbon Droplets Impingement
    P. Verhees, A. Mahulkar, K. Van Geem and G.J. Heynderickx
  9. Deposition from a Sour Heavy Oil under Incipient Coking Conditions: Wall Shear Stress Effects and Mechanism
    W. Wang and A.P. Watkinson
  10. Fouling in the Crude Oil Distillation Pre-Heat Train: Comparison of Experimental Data with Model Results
    A. Chambon, M. Ratel, Z. Anxionnaz-Minvielle, B. Aquino, A. Buffet and B. Vinet
  11. Modelling Shell-Side Crude Oil Fouling in Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
    E. Diaz-Bejarano and F. Coletti
  12. Beyond Fouling Factors: A Reaction Engineering Approach to Crude Oil Fouling Modelling
    E. Diaz-Bejarano, F. Coletti and S. Macchietto
  13. Analysis of Highly Noisy Crude Oil Fouling Data using Kalman Filter
    A.R. Mirsadraee and M.R. Malayeri
  14. EMbaffle® in Refinery Service. on-Field Study and Data Validation through SmartPM®
    M. Brignone, F. Perrone, M. Rottoli, S.J. Pugh and E.M. Ishiyama


  1. The Interaction of a Film-Forming Amine with Surfaces of a Recirculating Experimental Water Loop
    M. Jack, S. Weerakul and D.H. Lister
  2. The Role of Thermophoresis during Deposit Built-up on a Superheater Tube
    U.S. Kleinhans, M. Barnerßoi, S. Babat, C. Wieland and H. Spliethoff
  3. A Methodology to Simulate the Impact of Tube Fouling on Steam Generator Performance with a Thermal-Hydraulic Code
    T. Prusek, F. Oukacine and C. Hervouet
  4. Analysis of the Impact of Ash and Scale Fouling on the Superheater Operation
    M. Trojan, D. Taler and J. Taler
  5. Study on Physicochemical Mechanism of Nickel Surface Oxidation Behavior under high Temperature Condition by using Molecular Dynamic Method
    X. Lu, T. Ma, M. Zeng, Y. Chen and Q.W. Wang


  1. Review and a Conceptual Model of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Cooler Fouling Deposition and Removal Mechanism
    T. Han, A.C. Booth, S. Song, D.J. Styles and J.W. Hoard
  2. A Review of Particulate Fouling and Challenges of Metal Foam Heat Exchangers
    S.A. Fadhilah, M.R. Malayeri, and K. Hooman


  1. Evaporator Fouling Tendencies of Thin Stillage and Concentrates from the Dry Grind Process
    R.K. Challa, Y.B. Zhang, D.B. Johnston, V. Singh, N.J. Engeseth, M.E. Tumbleson and K.D. Rausch
  2. Update on Field Tests on Heat Exchangers Equipped with Dual Enhanced Tubes in a Quench Water Application
    J. Sippel, J. El-Hajal, and T. Scott
  3. Impact of Non-Uniform Fouling on Operating Temperatures in Heat Exchanger Networks
    L. Jackowski, P.J. Risse, and R.O. Smith
  4. A Wall-Function Approach for Direct Precipitation/Crystallization Fouling in CFD Modelling
    S.G. Johnsen, S.T. Johansen and B. Wittgens


  1. Impact of Tube Surface Properties on Crystallization Fouling in Falling Film Evaporators for Seawater Desalination
    H. Glade, A. Stärk, K. Krömer, K. Loisel, K. Odiot and S. Nied
  2. Numerical Simulation of Crystallization Fouling Taking into Account Fouling Layer Structures
    J. Xiao, J. Han, F. Zhang, and X.D. Chen
  3. Effects of Operating and Geometric Parameters on CaSO4 Crystallization Fouling in Plate Heat Exchangers
    K.S. Song, S.W. Kim, H. Kang, C.H. Baek and Y.C. Kim


  1. Biofilm Formation on Polymeric Heat Transfer Surfaces
    S. Pohl, M. Madzgalla, W. Manz and H.-J. Bart
  2. Antimicrobial Surfaces to Combat Microbial and Organic Fouling in the Food Industry
    K.A. Whitehead, S. Olivier, S. Hughes, P. Benson, D. Sawtell, G. West, L. Tetlow, K. Amamchukwu and P. Kelly
  3. The Importance of Material Properties, Nutrient Load and Shear Stress on Biofilm Formation
    J.M.R. Moreira, L.C. Gomes, M. Simões, L.F. Melo and F.J. Mergulhão
  4. In-situ Shipboard Heat Exchanger Maintenance using Innovative I2 Bubble Infusion Technology
    M. Radicone
  5. Neutral Electrolysed Oxidizing Water as Anti-Biofouling Alternative to Traditional Chlorine
    A. Meireles, I. Machado, M. Simões, L.F. Melo


  1. Description of the Cleaning Mechanism of a Model Food Soil Using an Optical Detection Method and the FDG Technique
    M. Helbig, H. Föste, W. Augustin, S. Scholl, J.-P. Majschak
  2. Relationship between β-Lactoglobulin Denaturation and Fouling Mass Distribution in a Plate Heat Exchanger
    M. Khaldi, G. Ronse, C. André, P. Blanpain-Avet, L. Bouvier, T. Six, S. Bornaz, T. Croguennec, R. Jeantet and G. Delaplace
  3. Investigation by Raman Spectroscopy of the Conformational Structure of Whey Proteins Constituting Fouling Deposits during the Processing in a Plate Heat Exchanger – Role of the Beta-Lactoglobulin Molten Globule
    P. Blanpain-Avet, A. Hédoux, L. Paccou, Y. Guinet, T. Six, M. Khaldi and G. Delaplace
  4. Experiments and Simulations on the Cleaning of a Swellable Soil in Plane Channel Flow
    M. Joppa, H. Köhler, F. Rüdiger, J.-P. Majschak and J. Fröhlich


  1. Fouling in Heavily Polluted Gas Applications – Experience, Know-How, Sophisticated Approach
    B. Kilkovský, V. Turek, Z. Jegla and P. Stehlík
  2. Management of Acute Particulate Fouling in a Titanium Dioxide Reactor System
    V.Y. Lister, J.F. Davidson, S.J. Sutcliffe and D.I. Wilson
  3. Dust Characterisation for Solar Collector Deposition and Cleaning in a Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plant
    Z. Guan, S. Yu, K. Hooman, H. Gurgenci and J. Barry


  1. Performance of Flexible Ceramic Coated Surfaces Subjected to Crude Oil Fouling
    O. Santos, C. Wictor, A. Törnqvist, M. Nilsson
  2. Minimizing Calcium Carbonate Scaling by Modifying the Surface of Heat Exchangers with Flexible Ceramic Coatings
    O. Santos, J. Anehamre, and M. Nilsson
  3. Antibacterial Efficiency of Boron Doped DLC Coatings
    X.J. Su, S. Wang and Q. Zhao
  4. Fouling-Repellent Coating for Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
    C. Bischoff, T. Poulsen, R. Losada, J.O. Mortensen, L. Jackowski and S.T. Taylor
  5. Biomimetic and Bioinspired Anti-adhesive and Antimicrobial Surfaces
    S. Mulansky, M. Ruhnow, F. Lenk, P. Goering, Th. Bley and E. Boschke
  6. Effect of Structured Surfaces on Fouling and Cleaning Behaviour in Plate Heat Exchangers
    R. Murcek, E. Fuchs, A. Boye, P. Joppa and J.P. Majschak
  7. Modelling Fouling of Fluted Heat Transfer Surfaces
    P. Besevic, S. M. Clarke and D. I. Wilson
  8. Value Pricing of Antifouling Surface Coatings in Heat Exchangers
    O.M. Magens, J. Hofmans, M. Pabon and D.I. Wilson
  9. Aging and Thermal Conditioning of Modified Heat Exchanger Surfaces – Impact on Crystallization Fouling
    K. Siebeneck, J. Lüken, Y. Lu, W. Augustin and S. Scholl


  1. Effect of Fouling and Cleaning on the Thermal Performance of Welded Plate Heat Exchanger in an Offshore Reboiler Application
    A. Bani Kananeh, A. Stotz, and S. Deshmukh
  2. Fouling in Microstructured Devices: A Review on the Current State of Experimental Work
    M. Schoenitz, L. Grundemann, W. Augustin and S. Scholl
  3. Experimental Investigation of Fouling of Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers in District Heating Systems
    D. Taler and G. Jaglarz


  1. Stream Flow Rate Optimization for Fouling Mitigation in the Presence of Thermohydraulic Channelling
    R.L. da Silva, A.L.H. Costa, and E.M. Queiroz
  2. Electro-Hydromechanic Cleaning of Hard Deposits in Tubular Exchangers – Fast, Safe and Efficient SISACO Approach
    M. Khani and M.R. Malayeri
  3. Removal Kinetics of Pink Guava Puree Fouling Deposit from a Stainless Steel Surface during Alkaline Cycle
    N.I. Khalid, N. Nordin, N.Ab Aziz, A.A. Nuraini, F.S. Taip and A. Ahmedov
  4. Energy Savings Obtained using the Online Automatic Tube Cleaning System in HVAC Systems in Australia: Real World Case Reviews
    D.P. Ross, P.A. Cirtog and A. Swanson
  5. Tube Inserts for Heat Exchangers – For Energy Conservation
    N. Aubin


  1. Innovation and Efficiency: Low-Pressure Water Mechanical Cleaning of the Heat Exchanger Cases in heat Exchanger Cleaning
    G.E. Saxon, Jr.
  2. Mechanical Cleaning in Place of Heat Exchangers using the Comprex&trg; Process
    S. Immel, J.C. Kuschnerow, N. Klein and H.-G. Hammann
  3. Chemical Cleaning and Decontamination of Refinery and Petrochemical Distillation Equipment
    B. Otzisk and M. Urschey
  4. Effect of Scheduling Cleaning of Crude Preheat Train Exchangers on the Operating Conditions of Fired Heaters
    E.M. Ishiyama, S.J. Pugh, J. Kennedy and D.I. Wilson


  1. Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger Fouling Identification using D-Optimal Experimental Design
    K.A. Palmer, W.T. Hale, and G.M. Bollas
  2. Operational and Chemistry Modeling and Monitoring of Cooling Water Heat Exchangers for the Avoidance of Waterside Fouling
    E.S. Beardwood
  3. The Use of Comparative Modelling of Heat Exchangers in Cooling Water to Avoid Unscheduled Production Downtime
    E.S. Beardwood
  4. Fouling Monitoring in Power Plant
    A. Kuboyama, T. Kuwahara, M. Nakamura and S. Iwahashi
  5. A Fluid Dynamic Gauging Device for Measuring Biofilms on Cylindrical Surfaces
    M. Lemos, S. Wang, A. Ali, M. Simões and D.I. Wilson
  6. Zero Discharge Fluid Dynamic Gauge (ZFDG) for Studying the Swelling of Soft Solid Fouling Layers
    S. Wang and D.I. Wilson